NISPA

Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction

Pharmacological Treatment in γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) Dependence: Detoxification and Relapse Prevention

TitelPharmacological Treatment in γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) Dependence: Detoxification and Relapse Prevention
PublicatietypeJournal Article
Jaar van publicatie2017
AuteursKamal RM, van Noorden MS, Wannet W, Beurmanjer H, Dijkstra BAG, Schellekens A
UitgaveCNS Drugs
Volume31
Nummer1
Pagina's51-64
Publicatiedatum2017 Jan
ISSN1179-1934
Samenvatting

The misuse of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for recreational purposes has resulted in an increase in GHB-related problems such as intoxications, dependence and withdrawal in several countries in Europe, Australia and the US over the last decade. However, prevalence rates of misuse of GHB and its precursor, γ-butyrolactone (GBL), are still relatively low. In this qualitative review paper, after a short introduction on the pharmacology of GHB/GBL, followed by a summary of the epidemiology of GHB abuse, an overview of GHB dependence syndrome and GHB/GBL withdrawal syndrome is provided. Finally, the existing literature on management of GHB detoxification, both planned and unplanned, as well as the available management of GHB withdrawal syndrome, is summarized. Although no systematic studies on detoxification and management of withdrawal have been performed to date, general recommendations are given on pharmacological treatment and preferred treatment setting.

DOI10.1007/s40263-016-0402-z
Alternatieve uitgaveCNS Drugs
PubMed ID28004314