Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Abuse and Dependence

TitelGamma-Hydroxybutyrate Abuse and Dependence
PublicatietypeBook Chapter
Jaar van publicatie2016
Auteursvan Noorden M, Kamal RM, Dijkstra BAG, Brunt TM, DeJong CA
BoektitelNeuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse
VolumeVolume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants, and International Aspects
Series Volume379-387
UitgeverAcademic Press, Elsevier
ISBN Number978-0-12-800212-4
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that naturally occurs in the human brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter
and neuromodulator. GHB was first synthesized in the 1960s in an attempt to create a
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue that would be able to pass the blood–brain barrier. GHB is both a precursor and a metabolite of GABA. After systemic administration, its acute and chronic effects occur via a complex interaction with several neurotransmitter systems
in the brain. The medical use of GHB is modest, and GHB has gained attention mostly as a club drug and as a date rape drug over the past decades. This chapter will provide an overview of GHB and its medical and recreational use, abuse, and addiction liabilities, as well as molecular
and cellular aspects of GHB use and addiction based on the latest research available.